The AK platform isn’t the most modular of designs, but it’s seemingly adaptable for many tasks. Need a light machine gun? Well, the RPK has you covered. Need a sniper rifle? Well, the PSL has you covered. Need a shotgun? Well, the Saiga 12 has you covered. Kalashnikov’s favorite platform can be seemingly adapted into any size or shape. We’ve covered a few before, and today we are going to be talking all about my favorite, the Saiga 12.
Just Like an AK?
The Saiga 12 proves just how adaptable the AK platform is. Taking the AK from 7.62 and 5.45 to 12-gauge should be tough to do, but it turns out they didn’t need to do much to make it work. It uses largely the same long-stroke gas-piston system the AK has always used.
The extraction port is understandably enlarged to accommodate those big chunky 12-gauge rounds. Our Saiga 12 bolt had to remain the same length to fit in an AK 47 receiver, and to do so the design had to change slightly. The rear section of the bolt wears a metal flap that helps keep the gun sealed against dirt when the bolt is forward.
The Saiga 12 also comes with multiple gas settings. The reason being is that shotguns vary widely in power levels. When using buckshot and slug loads, you get a lot more gas and recoil than when using birdshot or low-recoil loads. The gas settings allow for more or less gas depending on the round used. This ensures the gun works reliably with lower-powered loads and also prevents the gun from beating itself to death with full-powered loads.
The Saiga 12 has various magazine sizes. These include box magazines that vary from five to 10 rounds and drums that carry anywhere from 12 to 30 rounds. Just like an AK, these magazines rock and roll into place. I’ve always found the eight- and 10-round magazines to be the best balance of capacity and size. Drums are cool but often tough to use reliably and quite heavy.
The Saiga 12 is the most popular variant, but 410- and 20-gauge variants exist as well. These are more commonly used for sporting applications and less for combative purposes.
Blasting Away With the Saiga 12
One of the big benefits of the Saiga 12 and its gas-operated action is a large reduction in recoil. With the gas port set to the full-power position, the weapon is quite comfortable to shoot. It certainly inspires shooters to go at it fast. As you’d imagine, the sights are all AK, and rifle sights on a shotgun aren’t the best. Yet, they work, and at shotgun ranges, they’ll get you on target.
In the United States, the Saiga guns have a mixed reputation for reliability. This can largely be blamed on the 20 and 410 variants. They tended to be less reliable than the classic 12-gauge. There was also a culture of smithing Saiga 12s from their sporting configuration to a more modern variant, and some gunsmiths are better than others. The end result was some Siaga 12s that barely ran and some that ran like clocks.
I’ve always had fantastic experiences with the platform and find it to be one of the simpler options for semi-auto shotguns. People used to rifles can adapt quite quickly to the Saiga 12. The box magazines make reloads fast and easy, and the AK-like controls make it a natural extension for AK shooters.
Its Use By Armed Forces
The fact that the gun mimics the AK so well is a big reason why the Russian’s love it. The sights, controls, and ergonomics are all basically the same as a standard AK platform. As such, you can train a soldier on the AK, and then they can pick up and wield a Saiga 12 without much further training.
Obviously, the Russian Armed Forces wield the Saiga 12, although in Russia it is known as the KSK or Karabin Spetsialniy Kalashnikov. Yet, like for most modern military forces, the shotgun is a niche weapon, and it sees relatively little use.
The weapon is also popular with Russian law enforcement, as well as civilians. Owning shotguns in Russia is easier than owning a rifle or handgun.
Russia loves exporting their firearms, and Ukraine, France, Venezuela, Belarus, Indonesia, and many more wield the Saiga 12 for special operations. It’s a popular counter-terrorism weapon.
Believe it or not, an American unit uses the Saiga 12, as well. The Coast Guard’s Deployable Specialized Forces wield the Saiga since it is an excellent boarding weapon and perfect for sea-bound combat in small boars. Hitting moving targets with shotguns is easier than hitting them with rifles.
The 12-Gauge Man Stopper
The Saiga 12 is proof you can do almost anything with an AK platform. The seemingly endlessly adaptable design makes it easy to take a rifle design and turn it into a shotgun. It’s surely proven itself effective. What say you? Do we have any Saiga 12 fans in the house? Let us know in the comments below.